EC Nutrition

Research Article Volume 18 Issue 2 - 2023

Novel in Nano-Edible Films Applications in the Production of High-Quality Dates Al Hulwah and Soukari for Export

Eman A Abdel Khafar1,2*, Ghena M Al-Jahani1, Hajji Ali Alhajji3 and Hosam El Din Aboul Anean2*

1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Home Economics, Unveristy of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia

2Food Engineering and Packaging Department, Food Technology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt

3Date Palm Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Saudi Arabia

*Corresponding Author: Hosam El Din Aboul Anean and Eman A Abdel Khafar, Food Engineering and Packaging Department, Food Technology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt.
Received: January 24, 2023; Published: February 27, 2023

The aim of this study was to improve the quality of Al Hulwah" and Soukari dates by using edible coatings and films that have a high potential to carry active ingredients such as nano materials. The substances used in this experiment were: control: without treatment, T1: AgNO3 and ZnONPs at 0.5% (0.015%) and 0.03 wt% of chitosan and gelatin, T2: 0.5% (0.015%)/(0.03) wt% chitosan/gelatin chitosan/gelatin combined with phenolic compound active Luria leaves extract LLE (0.15%). T3: AgNO3/ZnONPs 0.5% (0.015%)/0.03 wt% chitosan/gelatin combined with active phenolic compound Thyme Leaves Extract TLE (0.15%). T4: AgNO3/ZnONPs 0.5% (0.015%) or (0.03) chitosan/gelatin weight percent combined with phenolic compound active Green Coffee Extract GCE, 5% (0.15%). The effect of edible coating on fruit quality attributes, including alhulwuh and soukari dates, was investigated during storage at 2 - 4°C and 70 - 75% relative humidity. The rheological properties of edible solutions and suspensions were studied. Mechanical properties, particle size distribution, zeta potential emulsions, and scanning electron microscopy films were also measured. The results observed that the best samples were edible coatings with nanosuspensions (T2), followed by samples (T3 and T4 as nano materials on quality of Al Hulwah" and Soukari dates. The effect of edible coating on quality attributes of fruits, including alhulwuh and soukari dates, was studied during storage at 2 - 4°C. The rheological properties of edible solutions and suspensions were studied. Different analyses period were determined on coated dates, such as weight loss, total soluble solids, total acidity, microbiological testing, and sensory evaluation tests. In contrast, the nanocoated Al Hulwah and Soukari dates were found to be of high quality when compared to the control and T1. Al Hulwah and Soukari dates dipped in (T2, T3, and T4) solutions reduced weight loss percentage and fruit quality for 6 weeks of storage.


Keywords: Edible Coating; Physical and Mechanical Properties; Al Hulwah" and Soukari Dates; Nano Materials and Sensory Evaluation

  1. Mahmud IA., et al. “Nutrients depictions of Barhi date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) kernels”. International Food Research Journal 24 (2017): S325-S334.
  2. Maria-Loana Socaciu and Melinda Fogarasi. “Formulation and Characterization of Antimicrobial Edible Films Based on Whey Protein Isolate and Tarragon Essential Oil”. Polymers21 (2020): 12.
  3. Goupy P., et al. “Antioxidant composition and activity of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and malt extracts and of isolated phenolic compounds”. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 79 (1999): 1625-1634.
  4. Jian Chen Lichun Luo., et al. “The nano antibacterial composite film carboxymethyl chitosan/gelatin/ nano ZnO improves the mechanical strength of food packaging Jian Chen”. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 220 (2022): 462-471.
  5. Divya M., et al. “Biopolymer gelatin-coated zinc oxide nanoparticles showed high antibacterial, antibio film and anti-angiogenic activity”. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, B: Biology 178 (2018): 211-218.
  6. Pasquet J., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of zinc oxide particles on five micro-organisms of the challenge tests related to their physicochemical properties”. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 460 (2014): 92-100.
  7. Aboul Anean H. “Using quinoa protein and starch nano particles to produce edible films”. Journal of Nutritional Health and Food Engineering4 (2018).
  8. Huiyun Zhang., et al. “Effect of chitosan- gelatin coating containing nano-encapsulated tarragon essential oil on the preservation of pork slices”. Meat Science 166 (2020): 108137.
  9. Sotelo-Boy ME Sotelo-Boy., et al. “Characterization of Chitosan Nanoparticles Added with Essential Oils. In Vitro Effect on Pectobacterium Carotovorum”. 3 (2015): 589-599.
  10. Tien CL., et al. “Development of biodegradable films from whey proteins by cross-linking and entrapment in cellulose”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48 (2000): 5566.
  11. Munoz PH., et al. “Mechanical and water barrier properties of glutenin films influenced by storage time”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52 (2004): 79-83.
  12. Hernandez-Mun P., et al. “Effect of cross-linking using aldehydes on properties of glutenin-rich films”. Food Hydrocolloids 18 (2004): 403.
  13. “Official Methods of Analysis”. 17th Edition. OF the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA (2010).
  14. Barbagallo RN., et al. “Effects of calcium citrate and ascorbate as inhibitors of browning and softening in minimally processed ‘Birgah’ eggplants”. Postharvest Biology and Technology 73 (2012): 107-114.
  15. Marshall S. Standard methods for examination of dairy products American public Health Association (ABHA). Washington DC, USA (1992).
  16. Public Health Association. Compendium of methods the microbiological examination Foods, Washington. U.S.A (1976).
  17. Chen MJ., et al. “Edible coating as preservative carriers to inhibit yeast on Taiwanese-style fruit preserves”. Journal of Food Safety 19 (1999): 89-96.
  18. Snedecor GW and WG Cochran. “Statistical methods”. 7th Edition. The Iowa State Univ., Press Amer, lowa – USA (1989): 50.
  19. Suisui Jiang., et al. “Evaluation of rheological behavior of starch nanocrystals by acid hydrolysis and starch nanoparticles by self-assembly: a comparative study”. Food Hydrocolloids 52 (2016): 914-922.
  20. Nelson Caro., et al. “Novel active packaging based on films of chitosan – tripolyphosphate- thymol nanoparticales via thermal ink-jet printing”. Food Hydrocolloids 52 (2016): 520-532.
  21. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). “Standard Test Methods for Tensile Properties of Thin Plastic Sheeting”. Standard Designation: D882. In Annual Book of American Standards Testing Methods; ASTM: Philadelphia, PA, USA. Potential Zeta from Colloids in Water and Waste water, at: ASTM Standard D, American Society for Testing and Materials (1985): 4187-4182.
  22. Tunc S and Duman O. “Preparation and characterization of biodegradable methyl cellulose/montmorillonite nanocomposite films”. Applied Clay Science 48 (2010): 414-424.
  23. Ortiz-Zarama MA., et al. “Rheological characterization of solutions of gelatin with bentonite and tannic acid caracterizacio´ n reolo´ gica de soluciones de gelatina con bentonita y a´ cido ta´ nico Ingeniería de alimentos”. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química3 (2016): 819-830.
  24. Roy JW and Rhim L Jaiswal. “Bioactive agar-based functional composite film incorporated with copper sulfide nanoparticles”. Food Hydrocolloids 93 (2019): 156-166.
  25. Rajabi HR., et al. “Green synthesis of zinc sulfide nanophotocatalysts using aqueous extract of Ficus Johannis plant for efficient photodegradation of some pollutants”. Journal of Materials Research and Technology6 (2020): 15638-15647.
  26. Swarup Roy and Jong-Whan Rhim. “Preparation of pectin/agar-based functional films integrated with zinc sulfide nano petals for active packaging applications”. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 207 (2021): 111999.
  27. Li JHJ Miao., et al. “Preparation and characterization of active gelatin-based films incorporated with natural antioxidants”. Food Hydrocolloids 37 (2014): 166-173.
  28. Munir SY Hu., et al. “Enhanced properties of silver carp surimi-based edible films incorporated with pomegranate peel and grape seed extracts under acidic condition”. Food Packaging and Shelf Life 19 (2019): 114-120.
  29. Priyadarshi RHJ Kim and JW Rhim. “Effect of sulfur nanoparticles on properties of alginate-based films for active food packaging applications”. Food Hydrocolloids 110 (2021): 106155.
  30. Praphulla R., et al. “Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Lemon Extract and its Antibacterial activity”. International Journal of Multidisciplinary and Current Research 2 (2014): 165-169.
  31. Fayaz AM., et al. “FTIR measurements of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles”. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine 6 (2010): 103-109.
  32. Bellaouchi R., et al. “Physical, chemical and microbial properties of undervalued dates and date derivatives manufactured in Morocco”. International Food Research Journal3 (2017): 963-969.
  33. Omaima M Hafez., et al. “Use Pre-Harvest Treatments to Keeping Quality and Long Shelf Life of Some Date Palm Cultivars M”. Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi1 (2011): 65-74.
  34. Omaima M Hafez., et al. “Quality Improvement and Storability of Some Date Palm Cultivars by Safe Postharvest Treatments”. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences3 (2012): 542-550.
  35. Esam AMM., et al. “Effects of Application Commercial Product Rates and Times on Yield and Fruit Quality of CV. Medjool Date Palms”. International Journal of Chem Tech Research (USA): IJCRGG04 (2016): 43-50.
  36. Patricia S., et al. “Effect of edible wheat gluten-based films and coatings on refrigerated strawberry quality”. Postharvest Biology Technology 36 (2005): 199-208.
  37. Sallam KI. “Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate in refrigerated sliced salmon”. Food Control 18 (2007): 566-575.

Hosam El Din Aboul Anean., et al. “Novel in Nano-Edible Films Applications in the Production of High-Quality Dates Al Hulwah and Soukari for Export”. EC Nutrition  18.2 (2023): 04-24.