EC Nutrition

Research Article Volume 18 Issue 5 - 2023

Ingredient Optimization of Functional Low-Fat Spread Using Response Surface Methodology

Suman Kharb1,2, Dilip Kumar Thompkinson2 and Harshita Kumari1*

1James L. Winkle College of Pharmacy, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA
2Dairy Technology Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, India

*Corresponding Author: Harshita Kumari, James L. Winkle College of Pharmacy, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
Received: April 03, 2023; Published: April 18, 2023

There is increasing consumer demand for fortified low-fat spreads with favorable sensorial and rheological characteristics. Fortification is achieved by the addition of ingredients that can modify functional properties of formulation. In this paper, we have created a new low-fat fortified formulation comprising of a lipid phase which contained milk fat, soy oil, and mustard oil. The resultant formulation was further optimized to provide 11.73% omega-3 fatty acids which could assist in reducing cholesterol levels in consumers. To enhance the sensory and rheological attributes, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the contents of ingredients: skim milk powder (SMP) (15 - 25%), xanthan gum (XG) (0.2 - 0.6%), carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (0.2 - 0.6%), and inulin (4 - 8%), and processing temperature (70 - 80°C). The individual and interactive effects of all variables on the sensory and rheological attributes were investigated (50 trials) and an optimum formulation was determined to contain 15.02% SMP, 0.20% XG, 0.6% CMC, and 4.25% inulin with a processing temperature of 71.13°C.

Keywords: Response Surface Methodology Omega-3; Inulin; Skim Milk Powder; Whey Protein Concentrate

  1. Chugh B., et al. “Studies on the optimization and stability of low-fat biscuit using carbohydrate-based fat replacers”. International Journal of Food Properties 18 (2015): 1446-1459.
  2. Chugh B., et al. “Optimization of ingredients for development of low-fat biscuits 2 using response surface methodology”. Journal of Food and Industrial Microbiology 2 (2016): 1.
  3. Pawan K. “Process Optimization for the preparation of chocolate spread incorporating whey protein concentrate, cocoa powder, olive oil and butterfat using response surface methodology”. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 39 (2014): 745-757.
  4. Wheatley SD., et al. “Low carbohydrate dietary approaches for people with type 2 diabetes-A Narrative Review”. Frontiers in Nutrition 8 (2021): 687-658.
  5. Zhang X., et al. “The effect of low carbohydrate diet on polycystic ovary syndrome: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials”. International Journal of Endocrinology 11 (2019): 4386401 -438614.
  6. Schwingshackl L. Chaimani., et al. “Comparative effects of different dietary approaches on blood pressure in hypertensive and pre-hypertensive patients: A systematic review and network meta-analysis”. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 59 (2019): 2674-2687.
  7. Nichols B. “The current market and legal state of butters, margarines and spreads”. Lipid Technology 5 (1993): 57-60.
  8. Morgan DPJ. “Yellow fat spread”. International Journal of Dairy Technology 46 (1993): 2-4.
  9. Koilda S., et al. “Prebiotic effect of inulin and oilgofructose”. British Journal of Nutrition 87 (2002): 193-197.
  10. Burcu Ö And Meltem SE. “A rising star prebiotic dietary fiber inulin and recent application in meat products”. Journal of Food and Health Science 3 (2017): 12-20.
  11. Murphy O. “Non-polyol low-digestible carbohydrates: food applications and functional benefits”. British Journal of Nutrition 85 (2001): S47-S53.
  12. Cashman KD and Flynn A. “Optimal nutrition: calcium, magnesium and phosphorus”. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 58 (1999): 477-487.
  13. Dawsom-Hughes B., et al. “Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older”. The New England Journal of Medicine 337 (1997): 670-676.
  14. Espert M., et al. “Reduced-fat spreads based on anhydrous milk fat and cellulose ethers”. Food Hydrocolloids 99 (2020): 105330.
  15. Reddy YK., et al. “Preparation of a low fat dairy spread using skim milk chakka and butter”. Indian Journal of Dairy Science 53 (2000): 11-14.
  16. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International”. H. William, edition. AOAC International, USA (2000): 1-20.
  17. Mann A. “Methods of analysis of milk and its products”. 3rd Milk industry foundation, Washington, USA (1959): 1-283.
  18. IS:SP:18 (Part XI). “Handbook of Food Analysis”. Part XI., Dairy Products. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi (1981).
  19. Manefee GS and Overman DR. “A semi microkjeldhal for the determination of total nitrogen”. Indian Journal of Dairy Science 23 (1940): 1177-1179.
  20. Shone H., et al. “Sensory evaluation by quantitative descriptive analysis”. Food Technology 28 (1977): 24-26.
  21. Henika RG. “Use of response surface methodology in sensory evaluation”. Food Technology 36 (1982): 96-101.
  22. Guven M Yasar., et al. “The effect of inulin as a fat replacer on the quality of set-type low-fat yoghurt manufacture”. International Journal of Dairy Technology 58 (2005): 180-184.
  23. Rønn BB., et al. “Predicting sensory properties from rheological measurements of low fat spreads”. Food Quality and Preference 9 (1998): 87-196.
  24. Goel MC., et al. “Manufacture and keeping quality of low fat dairy spread”. Milk Food Technology 32 (1969): 312-314.
  25. Patel AA and Gupta SK. “Studies on soy-based low fat spread”. Journal of Food Science 53 (1988): 455 459.
  26. Deshpande B and Thompkinson DK. “Table Spread - A Review”. Indian Journal of Dairy Science 53 (2000): 154-168.
  27. Malkki Y., et al. “Influence of oat gum, guar gum and carboxymethylcellulose on the perception of sweetness and flavour”. Food Hydrocolloids 6 (1993): 525-532.
  28. Paulus K and Eva-Maria Haas EM. “The influence of solvent viscosity on the threshold values of primary tastes”. Chemical Senses 5 (1980): 23-32.
  29. Hollowood TA., et al. “The effect of viscosity on the perception of flavour”. Chemical Senses 27 (2002): 583-591.
  30. Vashishtha B. “Formulation of dietary supplement for cardiovascular health”. Ph.D. Thesis, NDRI Deemed University, Karnal, India (2005).
  31. Floury J., et al. “Effect of high-pressure homogenization on droplet size distributions and rheological properties of model oil-in water emulsions”. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 1 (2000): 127-134.
  32. Moran DPJ. “Development of yellow fat spread”. Chemistry Industry (1991): 379-383.
  33. Imeson A. “Thickening and gelling agents for food”. Imeson, A. edition Chapman and Hall limited. Japan (1992): 204.
  34. Suman K and Thompkinson DK. “Formulation of functional spread using Response surface methodology”. In: Souvenir, 18th Indian convention of food scientists and technologists, Innovation in food science and technology, ICFOST (AFST), 16-17 Hyderabad, India (2006): 10.
  35. Zecher D and Van Coillie R. “Cellulose derivatives”. In: Thickening and gelling agents for foods. A. Imeson. edition Blackie Academic and Professional. London (1992): 41-60.
  36. Prajapati PS. “Technology of low fat spread manufacture”. Ph.D. Thesis. NDRI Deemed University, Karnal (Haryana) (1988).
  37. Adhikari B., et al. “Stickiness in foods: a review of mechanisms and test methods”. International Journal of Food Properties 4 (2001): 1-33.
  38. Weenen H., et al. “Texture and mouthfeel of semi-solid foods: Commercial mayonnaises, dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces”. Journal of Texture Studies 34 (2003): 159-179.
  39. Patange DD. “Studies on manufacture of low fat spread using ghee”. Ph.D. Thesis, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri (2005).
  40. Gel-Nagar Glowes G., et al. “Rheological quality and stability of yog-ice-cream with added inulin”. International Journal of Dairy Technology 55 (2002): 89-93.
  41. Reddy SY., et al. “A rheological study of channa bread spread”. Beverage Food World 26 (1991): 11-12.
  42. Deshpande D. “Formulation of table spread from UF retentate of table spread from UF retentate”. M.Sc. Thesis, NDRI Deemed University, Karnal (1998).
  43. Kulkarni S and Rama Murthy MK. “Studies on rheological characteristics of dairy spreads from buffalo cream butter”. Indian Journal of Dairy Science 41 (1988): 437.
  44. Joseph Y. “International Commission on Microbiological Specification for Foods”. Microorganisms in foods. in Characteristics of microbial pathogens, ICMSF. Roberts T. A., Baird-Parker, A. C., and Tompkin, R. B., edition. Blackie Academic and Professional, London (1996): 513.

Harshita Kumari., et al. "Ingredient Optimization of Functional Low-Fat Spread Using Response Surface Methodology". EC Nutrition 18.5 (2023): 41-59.