EC Nutrition

Research Article Volume 18 Issue 5 - 2023

Healthy Italian Dietary Pattern to Achieve 2030 Climate Target

Raffaela Piccinelli1, Deborah Martone1, Giovina Catasta1, Aida Turrini2 and Marika Ferrari1*

1Research Centre for Food and Nutrition, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Rome, Italy
2Independent Expert (Formerly Council for Agricultural Research and Economics), Italy

*Corresponding Author: Marika Ferrari, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics - Research Centre for Food and Nutrition (CREA - Alimenti e Nutrizione), Via Ardeatina, Rome, Italy.
Received: April 25, 2023; Published: May 09, 2023

Objective: To identify dietary patterns among Italian adults satisfying nutritional recommendations and that meet Green Houses Gas Emissions (GHGE) reduction target to 2030 designed to limit the global average temperature to rise to 1.5°C.

Method: Three dietary patterns were considered: a) a Healthy Dietary pattern (HDp) developed quantifying the food groups and subgroups on the basis of Italian Dietary Guidelines (IDG); b) an Optimized Dietary pattern (ODp) based on daily food groups amounts from an Optimized Diet at lower GHGE close to the current Italian food consumption; c) a Low GHGE Healthy Dietary pattern (Low GHGE HDp), developed from HDp, where the frequencies of minor food subgroups with lower GHGE were increased respect to those with higher, maintaining the frequencies of major food groups. For all three dietary patterns, standardized serving sizes were used. For the 1990 diet, data from the INN-CA Study 1994-96 were used and GHGE emissions were calculated and reported for the adult population. GHGE (in kg CO2eq) and nutrient content of all dietary patterns have been compared to each other.

Results: With respect to the GHGE from INN-CA food consumption data, HDp shows a GHGE reduction of 31.9% while ODp of 46.8%. For Low GHGE_HDp the choice of different subgroups and minor subgroups, considering their GHGE values, translated into a GHGE reduction of 49.4%. To reach the 55% target, an additional 2030 Target GHGE Dietary pattern was developed, reducing the daily servings’ size frequencies of “milk and yoghurt” subgroups respect IDG by a third and shifting the subgroups’ frequencies without modifying those of the relative groups, i.e. excluding “pasta with eggs, fillings, etc” and “preserved fish” subgroups and considering only “seasoned cheese” minor subgroups as “cheese” group.

Conclusion: To fully reach the environmental target for the reduction of GHGE, it is enough to reduce the weekly frequency of servings’ size for “milk, milk product and yoghurt and fermented milk” group to the Italian healthy dietary pattern and address the choice to “seasoned cheese” among the minor subgroup of “cheese and substitutes” subgroup ensuring equally optimal nutritional coverage.

Keywords: Diet; Healthy; Environment; Serving Size; Nutritional Recommendations

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Marika Ferrari., et al. "Healthy Italian Dietary Pattern to Achieve 2030 Climate Target". EC Nutrition 18.5 (2023): 22-41.