EC Nutrition

Research Article Volume 18 Issue 4 - 2023

Carcinogenic Aflatoxins and Aflatoxicol in Cheeses Sampled in Mexico

Magda Carvajal-Moreno1*, Patricia Velez1, Valentín Rojas-Marín1,2 and Silvia Ruiz-Velasco3

1Laboratorio de Micotoxinas, Departamento de Botánica, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Ciudad Universitaria, Alcaldía Coyoacán, Ciudad de México, México
2Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Panamá, La Cresta, Ciudad de Panamá, Panama
3Departamento de Estadística, Instituto de Investigaciones en Matemáticas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Ciudad Universitaria, Delegación Coyoacán, Ciudad de México, México

*Corresponding Author: Magda Carvajal-Moreno, Laboratorio de Micotoxinas, Departamento de Botánica, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Ciudad Universitaria, Alcaldía Coyoacán, Ciudad de México, México.
Received: March 20, 2023; Published: April 12, 2023

Fresh and mature cheese samples were collected in 2018 in Mexico City to identify aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) and their hydroxylated metabolites (AFM1, AFM2, AFP1, and aflatoxicol). Ninety two percent of the samples had aflatoxins, and aflatoxicol was the prevalent mycotoxin in 72% samples. and represent a health risk. Most of the AFB1 was metabolized to aflatoxicol, which interconverts with AFM1 to become a dangerous carcinogen. Aflatoxicol is a potent carcinogen that retains 70% of the mutagenicity of AFB1. Aflatoxicol is a ‘reservoir’ for AFB1 in vivo, prolonging its effective lifetime in the body, and is more potent toxin than AFM1. There was no difference in AFs between fresh and mature cheeses and they are a health risk for humans due to the frequency of consumption. It is recommended to check aflatoxins in the ruminant feed.

Keywords: Aflatoxins; Carcinogens; Cheese; Hydroxylated Metabolites; Mycotoxins

  1. Cheese Global Market Report (2022).
  2. FIRA, Fideicomisos Instituidos en Relación con la Agricultura. Leche y lácteos. Panorama Agroalimentario. Dirección de Investigación y Evaluación Económica y Sectorial (2019): 1-25.
  3. CONAPO, Consejo Nacional de Población. Proyecciones de población de México y de las Entidades Federativas (2018): 2016-2050.
  4. Commission of the European Communities, Commission Directive of 13 February 1991 amending the Annexes to Council Directive 74/63 EEC on undesirable substances and products in animal nutrition (91/126/EEC)”. Official Journal of the European Community L60 (1991): 16-17.
  5. SAGARPA Secretaría de Agricultura., et al. “Panorama de la leche en México”. Servicio de Información Agroalimentaria y Pesquera: México (2018): 1-12.
  6. Rushing BR., et al. “A review on metabolism, toxicity, occurrence in food, occupational exposure, and detoxification methods”. Food and Chemical Toxicology 124 (2019): 81-100.
  7. Arapcheska M., et al. “Impact of Aflatoxins on animal and human health”. International Journal of Innovative Scientific and Engineering Technologies 2 (2015): 156-161.
  8. Álvarez-Bañuelos MT., et al. “Free and DNA adducted aflatoxins in chronic liver diseases that predispose to hepatocellular carcinoma in Mexico”. Journal of Cancer Science and Therapy 7 (2015): 274-782.
  9. Carvajal M., et al. “The presence of aflatoxin B1-FAPY adduct and human papilloma virus in cervical smears from cancer patients in Mexico”. Food Additives and Contaminants Part A: Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 29 (2012): 258-268.
  10. Carvajal-Moreno M., et al. “Aflatoxins, carcinogens in food, as etiological factors in human malignant neoplasias of the lung”. Journal of Cancer Science and Therapy 10 (2018): 294-301.
  11. Díaz de León-Martínez, L., et al. “Evaluation of emerging biomarkers of renal damage and exposure to aflatoxin-B1 in Mexican indigenous women: a pilot study”. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 26 (2019): 12205-12216.
  12. Gong Y., et al. “Postweaning exposure to Aflatoxin results in impaired child growth: A longitudinal study in Benin, West Africa”. Environmental Health Perspectives 112 (2004): 1334-1338.
  13. IARC, International Agency for Research on Cancer.): Some traditional herbal medicines, some mycotoxins, naphthalene and styrene. Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans 2002, 82. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Lyon, France (2002).
  14. Sriwattanapong K., et al. “Editor's Highlight: Pregnancy alters Aflatoxin B1 metabolism and increases DNA damage in mouse liver”. Toxicological Sciences 160 (2017): 173-179.
  15. Cao W., et al. “Aflatoxin B1: metabolism, toxicology, and its involvement in oxidative stress and cancer development”. Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods 11 (2022): 1-25.
  16. Díaz De León-Martínez L., et al. “Evaluation of acute and chronic exposure to aflatoxin B1 in indigenous women of the Huasteca Potosina, Mexico”. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International 27 (2020): 30583-30591.
  17. Jager AV., et al. “Assessment of aflatoxin exposure using serum and urinary biomarkers in São Paulo, Brazil: A pilot study”. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 219 (2016): 294-300.
  18. Carvajal-Moreno M., et al. “Presence of unreported aflatoxins and hydroxylated metabolites in industrial Oaxaca cheese from Mexico City, Mexico”. Food and Chemical Toxicology 124 (2019): 128-138.
  19. AOAC, Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Natural toxins. In: Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (18th edition). Horwitz W, Latimer GW, Trucksess MW. Gaithersburg (MD). USA (2006): 1-51.
  20. Cruz-Rueda V. “Curso de Validación de Métodos Analíticos”. Centro de Capacitación RH. World, SA de CV (2016).
  21. Kok WT. “Derivatization reactions for the determination of Aflatoxins by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection”. Journal of Chromatography A 659 (1994): 127-137.
  22. Akiyama H., et al. “Determination of aflatoxins B, B2, G1 and G2 in spices using a multifunctional column clean-up”. Journal of Chromatography A 932 (2001): 153-157.
  23. R-Biopharm Rhône. “Easi-extract aflatoxin”. Usage guide. RP71 RP70N/V12/ 28.06.12. Block 10 Todd Campus, West of Scotland Science Park. Acre Road, Glasgow G20 0XA. UK (2012).
  24. Carvajal M., et al. “Minimal amount of AFB1 to produce a mutation in Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium TA-98”. La Revista Mexicana de Micología 19 (2004): 71-79.
  25. Popescu RG., et al. “Aflatoxins in feed: types, metabolism, health consequences in swine and mitigation strategies”. Toxins14 (2022): 853.
  26. Detroy RW and Hesseltine CW. “Structure of a new transformation product of aflatoxin B1”. Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology 48 (1970): 830-832.
  27. Peraica M., et al. “Toxic effects of mycotoxins in humans”. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 77 (1999): 754-766.
  28. Cole RJ and Cox RH. “Handbook of Toxic Fungal Metabolites”. Academic Press. New York, USA (1981): 936.
  29. Carvajal M., et al. “Aflatoxin B1 and its interconverting metabolite Aflatoxicol in milk. Situation in Mexico”. Food Additives and Contaminants 20 (2003): 1077-1086.
  30. Oyelami OA., et al. “Aflatoxins in the autopsy brain tissue of children in Nigeria”. Mycopathologia 132 (1995): 35-38.
  31. Apeagyei F., et al. “Aflatoxins in the livers of children with kwashiorkor from Ghana”. Tropical and Geographical Medicine 38 (1986): 273-276.
  32. Karabulut S., et al. “Reduction of aflatoxin B1 to aflatoxicol: A comprehensive DFT study provides clues to its toxicity”. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 94 (2014): 3134-3140.
  33. Groopman JD., et al. “Molecular dosimetry in rat urine of aflatoxin-N7-guanine and other aflatoxin metabolites by multiple monoclonal antibody affinity chromatography and immunoaffinity/high performance liquid chromatography”. Cancer Research 52 (1992): 267-274.
  34. Wong ZA and Hsieh DPH. “The comparative metabolism and toxicokinetics of aflatoxin B1 in monkey, rat and mouse”. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 55 (1980): 115-125.
  35. Schoenhard GL., et al. “Aflatoxicol-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and the synergistic effects of cyclopropenoid fatty acids”. Cancer Research 41 (1981): 1011-1014.
  36. Wang C., et al. “Rapid biodegradation of aflatoxin B1 by metabolites of Fusarium sp. WCQ3361 with broad working temperature range and excellent thermostability”. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 97 (2017): 1342-1348.

Magda Carvajal-Moreno., et al. "Carcinogenic Aflatoxins and Aflatoxicol in Cheeses Sampled in Mexico". EC Nutrition 18.4 (2023): 28-40.