EC Nutrition

Research Article Volume 14 Issue 9 - 2019

A Systematic Review of N-3 and N-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Concentration in Childhood Cancer Patients and Associated Clinical Outcomes

Revuelta Iniesta Raquel1,2*, Wyness Laura3 and Wilson David C2,4

1Department of Dietetics, Nutrition and Biological Science, Queen Margaret University, Musselburgh, United Kingdom
2Department of Child Life and Health, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
3Nutrition Research and Communication, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
4Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

*Corresponding Author: Revuelta Iniesta Raquel, Department of Dietetics, Nutrition and Biological Science, Queen Margaret University, Musselburgh, United Kingdom.
Received: July 15, 2019; Published: August 22, 2019

Background: This systematic review evaluated primary research to establish blood omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA); eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA); arachidonic acid (AA) concentration. The effectiveness of their supplementation on clinical and nutritional outcomes and associations between their concentration and clinical and nutritional outcomes were also evaluated.         

Methods: Electronic databases were searched (no restriction-Dec 2018) with no language restrictions. We included studies of cancer patients aged < 18 years and reporting supplementation and/or concentration of EPA, DHA and AA. Evidence was critically appraised employing the CASP tool.

Findings: Three studies (n = 84) met the inclusion criteria, mainly of weak quality and heterogeneous in both study designs and outcomes measured. The overall median(range) n-3 and n-6 PUFA concentration were; EPA: 0.4 (0.24 - 0.4%), DHA: 1.66 (1.3 - 1.68%), AA: 7.01 (6.5 - 7.3%) and AA/EPA: 18.7 (171 - 29.2%). EPA%, DHA% and AA% were all lower than the references 0.45 - 0.77%, 2.22 - 3.76% and 7.91 - 10.46% respectively, whilst AA/EPA% was higher than the reference (< 14.59%). Both higher intake and blood concentration of EPA and DHA may reduce weight loss during initial treatment, whilst a high ratio of AA/EPA may be associated with lower BMI centiles.

Interpretation: EPA and DHA may be beneficial in children with cancer. High-quality population-based longitudinal cohort studies and clinical trials are urgently warranted.

Keywords: Childhood Cancer; N-3 PUFA; N-6 PUFA

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Revuelta Iniesta Raquel., et al. "A Systematic Review of N-3 and N-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Concentration in Childhood Cancer Patients and Associated Clinical Outcomes". EC Nutrition 14.9 (2019): 709-722.