EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine

Review Article Volume 12 Issue 7 - 2023

Desktop Primer Regarding the Etiology, Risk Factors, Symptoms, Pathophysiology, Mechanisms, Management, and Treatment for Long COVID

Sudeep Chawla1†, Nicholas A Kerna2,3*†, Dabeluchi C Ngwu4,5, John V Flores6, Kevin D Pruitt7,8, ND Victor Carsrud9, Hilary M Holets6, Nicodemus Chidi Okpo10 and Joy Nwangwu Osuebi11

1Chawla Health & Research, USA

2Independent Global Medical Researchers Consortium

3First InterHealth Group, Thailand

4Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, Federal Medical Center, Umuahia, Nigeria

5Earthwide Surgical Missions, Nigeria

6Orange Partners Surgicenter, USA

7Kemet Medical Consultants, USA

8PBJ Medical Associates, LLC, USA

9Lakeline Wellness Center, USA

10Shaqra General Hospital, Saudi Arabia

11University of Health Sciences, Antigua

*Corresponding Author: Nicholas A Kerna, (mailing address) POB47 Phatphong, Suriwongse Road, Bangkok, Thailand 10500. Contact: † indicates co-first author
Received: May 22, 2023; Published: June 14, 2023

Long COVID is a general term for a complicated multisystemic disease that develops after acute infection with COVID-19, regardless of severity, immediately or after a period of apparent recovery. Long COVID has been shown in studies to affect the entire spectrum of COVID-19 patients, from mild acute illness to the most severe manifestations. Long COVID has a complex etiology that involves viral seeding and persistence in several organs, stimulation, and reactivity to unrelated viruses, autoimmune inflammation, and autoimmunity. Fatigue, dyspnea, irregular heartbeats, cognitive dysfunction, muscular discomfort, attention deficits and headaches etc., are some of the symptoms. Together with symptoms and problems, Long COVID patients frequently struggle with poor quality of life (QoL), mental health concerns, and work issues. These patients may need multidisciplinary treatment, including long-term symptom monitoring to spot potential problems, rehabilitation programs, psychological health, social care support, immunization, and pharmaceutical and non-pharmacological methods. However, given the wide range of symptoms and issues that people with extended COVID may encounter, a better understanding of the clinical history of the condition is necessary. Improved and integrated care models are essential to support and manage patients with Long COVID-19, and resilient healthcare systems are required to ensure effective responses to future health challenges. Future clinical trials must standardize diagnostic standards, including people with concurrent chronic cardiometabolic diseases, and standardize the results. This review aims to comprehensively review the current literature on Long COVID, including its pathophysiology, risk factors, management, options, challenges, and future perspectives.

Keywords: Adaptive Autoimmunity; Epstein-Barr Virus; Human Herpesvirus; Isocapnic Buffering; Long COVID Risk Factors; SARS-CoV-2 Infection; Sleeplessness

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