EC Paediatrics

Systematic Review Volume 12 Issue 6 - 2023

Evaluation and Treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review

Majd Taha Alsaadi*

R3 Pediatric, Saudi Board, Salmaniya Medical Complex, Bahrain

*Corresponding Author: Majd Taha Alsaadi, R3 Pediatric, Saudi Board, Salmaniya Medical Complex, Bahrain.
Received: May 16, 2023; Published: May 25, 2023

Objective: A growing number of research on ADHD among children on evaluation and treatment. The goal of this systematic review was to spot light on evaluation and treatment of ADHD among children and young adults.

Methods: Authors began with recognizing the important examination proof that spots light on evaluation and treatment of ADHD among children and young adults. Authors led electronic writing look in the accompanying data sets: Ovid Medline (2000- present), Ovid Medline Daily Update, Ovid Medline in process and other non-filed references, Ovid Embase (2000- present), The Cochrane Library (latest issue) and Web of Science. Just examinations in English language were incorporated. The precise selection was acted in close collaboration with a clinical examination curator.

Results: Following the PRISMA criteria, a narrative synthesis of the findings was presented. Overall, the research suggested a significant negative correlation between ADHD symptoms and a person's aptitude for mathematics. The inattentive aspect of ADHD was shown to have a stronger correlation with this trait than the hyperactive-impulsive aspect. Two studies demonstrated a strong genetic link between arithmetic and ADHD, with the inattentive subtype being more strongly associated with math than the hyperactive-impulsive subtype.

Conclusion: Inattentive ADHD symptoms are most affected by math, according to the research. Distinct ADHD subgroups may have different causes. Different varieties of ADHD manifest differently in youngsters, therefore it's crucial to correctly diagnose one to predict arithmetic difficulties. Shared genetic traits contribute to ADHD and math covariation, but environmental variables also play a role. These insights help us understand ADHD and may lead to non-pharmacological therapies that target the underlying causes. If these therapies are utilized alone or in addition to pharmaceutical therapy, children may do better in school. ADHD and arithmetic problems may have a neurological cause.

Keywords: ADHD; Children; Evaluation; Treatment; Systematic Review

  1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association (2013).
  2. International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, 11th edition. Geneva: World Health Organization (2018).
  3. Smoller JW., et al. “Psychiatric genetics and the structure of psychopathology”. Molecular Psychiatry 24 (2019): 409-420.
  4. Coghill D and Sonuga-Barke EJS. “Annual research review: categories versus dimensions in the classification and conceptualisation of child and adolescent mental disorders: implications of recent empirical study”. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 53 (2012): 469-489.
  5. Gallo EF and Posner J. “Moving towards causality in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: overview of neural and genetic mechanisms”. Lancet Psychiatry 3 (2016): 555-567.
  6. Pliszka SR., et al. “The Texas Children’s Medication Algorithm Project: revision of the algorithm for pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder”. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 45 (2006): 642-657.
  7. Scheffler RM., et al. “The global market for ADHD medications”. Journal of Health Affairs 26 (2007): 450-457.
  8. Molina BSG., et al. “The MTA at 8 years: prospective follow-up of children treated for combined-type ADHD in a multisite study”. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 48 (2009): 484-500.
  9. Chang Z., et al. “Risks and benefits of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder medication on behavioral and neuropsychiatric outcomes: a qualitative review of pharmacoepidemiology studies using linked prescription databases”. Biological Psychiatry 86 (2019): 335-343.
  10. Adler LD and Nierenberg AA. “Review of medication adherence in children and adults with ADHD”. Postgraduate Medical Journal 122 (2010): 184-191.
  11. Bussing R., et al. “Barriers to detection, help-seeking, and service use for children with ADHD symptoms”. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research 30 (2003): 176-189.
  12. Wright N., et al. “Practitioner review: pathways to care for ADHD - a systematic review of barriers and facilitators”. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 56 (2015): 598-617.
  13. Posner J and Greenhill LL. “Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder”. In: McVoy M, Findling RL, editions. Clinical manual of child and adolescent psychopharmacology, 2nd editionn. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association (2013).
  14. Cortese S., et al. “Comparative efficacy and tolerability of medications for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children, adolescents, and adults: a systematic review and network meta-analysis”. Lancet Psychiatry 5 (2018): 727-738.
  15. Castells X., et al. “Efficacy of methylphenidate for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a meta-regression analysis”. CNS Drugs 25 (2011): 157-169.
  16. Greenhill LL., et al. “Trajectories of growth associated with long-term stimulant medication in the multimodal treatment study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder”. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (2019): 10.
  17. Ibrahim K and Donyai P. “Drug holidays from ADHD medication: international experience over the past four decades”. Journal of Attention Disorders 19 (2015): 551-568.
  18. Chang Z., et al. “Stimulant ADHD medication and risk for substance abuse”. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 55 (2014): 878-885.
  19. Swanson JM., et al. “DSM-V and the future diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder”. Current Psychiatry Reports 11 (2009): 399-406.
  20. Posner J. “The role of precision medicine in child psychiatry: what can we expect and when?” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 57 (2018): 813-817.
  21. Posner J., et al. “Dissociable attentional and affective circuits in medication-naive children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder”. Psychiatry Research 213 (2013): 24-30.
  22. Campbell SB., et al. “A developmental perspective on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) In: Lewis M, Rudolph KD, editions. Handbook of developmental psychopathology”. Boston, MA, USA: Springer (2014): 427-448.
  23. Franke B., et al. “Live fast, die young? A review on the developmental trajectories of ADHD across the lifespan”. European Neuropsychopharmacology 28 (2018): 1059-1088.
  24. Halperin JM., et al. “Preventive interventions for ADHD: a neurodevelopmental perspective”. Neurotherapeutics 9 (2012): 531-541.
  25. Smith E., et al. “Preschool hyperactivity specifically elevates long-term mental health risks more strongly in males than females: a prospective longitudinal study through to young adulthood”. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 26 (2017): 123-136.
  26. Goodwin A., et al. “Attention training for infants at familial risk of ADHD (INTERSTAARS): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial”. Trials 17 (2016): 608.
  27. Daley D., et al. “Practitioner review: current best practice in the use of parent training and other behavioural interventions in the treatment of children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder”. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 59 (2018): 932-947.
  28. Massetti GM., et al. “Academic achievement over 8 years among children Who Met modified criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder at 4-6 years of Age”. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 36 (2008): 399-410.
  29. Hart SA., et al. “Exploring how symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are related to reading and mathematics performance general genes, general environments”. Psychological Science 21 (2010): 1708-1715.
  30. Greven CU., et al. “Evidence for shared genetic risk between ADHD symptoms and reduced mathematics ability: a twin study”. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 55 (2014): 39-48.
  31. DuPaul GJ., et al. “Elementary school students with AD/HD: predictors of academic achievement”. Journal of School Psychology 42 (2004): 285-301.
  32. Kaufmann L and Nuerk H-C. “Basic number processing deficits in ADHD: a broad examination of elementary and complex number processing skills in 9- to 12-year-old children with ADHD-C”. Developmental Science 11 (2008): 692-699.
  33. Barry TD., et al. “Academic underachievement and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: The negative impact of symptom severity on school performance”. Journal of School Psychology 40 (2002): 259-283.
  34. Greven CU., et al. “A longitudinal twin study on the association between inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms”. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 39 (2011): 623-632.
  35. Lahey BB., et al. “DSM-IV field trials for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents”. The American Journal of Psychiatry 151 (1994): 1673-1685.

Majd Taha Alsaadi. “Evaluation and Treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review”. EC Paediatrics  12.6 (2023): 52-60.