EC Microbiology

Review Article Volume 18 Issue 12 - 2022

Rheumatoid Arthritis Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Management

Baraa Faiez Rajab1*, Abdullah Mohammad Albihani2, Maali Ali Hamdi3, Rafif Ghazi Alsaigh4, Saud Mohammad Altowairqi5, Arwa Saad Alzahrani6, Lama Zaki Alnasrallah7, Abdulrhman Mahbob Alawfi8, Hamad Abdulrahman Algaeed9, Ahmed Saeed Alzahrani9, Abdullah Khalid Alafif10, Abdulmohsen Mohammad Aldrees11, Ibrahim Fayiq Khayyat12 and Khalid Esam Alshebl13

1King Abdulaziz Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

2King Salman Bin Abdulaziz Medical City, Madinah, Saudi Arabia

3Jazan University, Saudi Arabia

4Hera General Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

5Royal Saudi Land Forces (Ministry of Defence), Taif, Saudi Arabia

6King Fahad General Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

7Imam Abdulrrhman Alfaisal Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

8Taibah University, Medina, Saudi Arabia

9King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz University Hospital, Saudi Arabia

10Family Medicine Academy, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

11Riyadh Second Cluster, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

12King Abdulla Medical Complex, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

13King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

*Corresponding Author: Baraa Faiez Rajab, Consultant General Medicine, King Abdulaziz Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Received: November 16, 2022Published: November 21, 2022

Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis is a complex autoimmune disorder that results in debilitating peripheral joint pain, and the physical disability therefrom. The prevalence of RA is heterogenous with some communities not reporting any cases while others have it in high numbers. This review will discuss the complex etiopathogenesis of the disease along with various clinical and radiological features. The review will also briefly discuss diagnostic criteria and treatment modalities.

Aim of Work: The aim of this study is to write an overview of rheumatoid arthritis epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management.

Materials and Methods: Comprehensive research of rheumatoid arthritis epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management. PUBMED search engine was the mainly used database for the search process, articles collected from the year 1997 to 2021 relating to rheumatoid arthritis. The term used in the search were: rheumatoid arthritis, HLA gene, PTPN11 gene, citrullination, autoantibodies, ACPA, RF, periodontitis, rheumatoid nodules, DMARDs, biologics.

Conclusion: This review has briefed the basic overview of rheumatoid arthritis. RA is a complex autoimmune disease that largely affects the joints of the human body. It has some genetic predilection as well as environmental influencers in its pathophysiology. Of particular importance is the role of autoantibodies in creating a cascade of events leading to joint inflammation. The clinical and radiological features are quite heterogenous and therefore their diagnosis depends on the clinical judgment of doctors. There also exists a diagnostic criterion that can assist in diagnosing RA, especially during patient selection in clinical studies. Pain and inflammation are generally managed by NSAIDs and steroids, while DMARDs and biologics are used to restrict the disease progression in RA.


Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis; HLA Gene; PTPN11 Gene; Citrullination; Autoantibodies; ACPA; RF; Periodontitis; Rheumatoid Nodules; DMARDs; Biologics

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Baraa Faiez Rajab., et al. “Rheumatoid Arthritis Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Management”. EC Microbiology  18.12 (2022): 18-26.