EC Microbiology

Editorial Volume 18 Issue 12 - 2022

Overview of Diabetes Mellitus and New Modalities of Treatment

Hashem Mohammed Malki1*, Wafaa Abdulkaliq Almehmadi2, Hani Hathath Alsulami3, Saud Saad Albishi4, Ali Abdulkaliq Almehmadi5, Abdulrahman Ghazi Alqurashi2, Wsam Adnan Alsolimani6, Heba Hesham Nezamadeen7, Ghayda Ghazi Al Qurashi8, Shahad Saad Albishi9, Mohannad Talal Tolah10, Albaraa Abduallh Turjman11, Faisal Abdullah Alzahrani4, Faisal Mahmoud Turkistani12 and Maha Marzouq Almutairi13

1Hera General Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

2Alnawariah Primary Health Care Center, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

3Maternity and Children Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

4Alsharae Primary Health Care Center, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

5Umm Al Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

6Heraa General Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

7Kakia Primary Health Care Center, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

8Iskan Primary Health Care Center, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

9King Faisal Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

10King Fahd Hospital, Almadinah, Saudi Arabia

11Alshumasi Medical Center, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

12Al-Jawharah Primary Health Care Center, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

13Al Hajj Street Primary Health Care Center, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

*Corresponding Author: Hashem Mohammed Malki, Consultant Diabetes Management/Family Medicine, Hera General Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
Received: December 21, 2022; Published: December 26, 2022

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases where insulin is either deficient in quantity, or its action is resisted by target organs. Broadly, it is classified as type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes, and other less common ones like monogenic diabetes. It affects millions of people around the world of all age groups and is a major cause of mortality among humans. This review briefly discusses the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and conventional treatment, while focusing more on emerging modalities of management.

Aim of Work: The aim of this study is to review the fundamentals of diabetes mellitus and novel methods of treatment.

Materials and Methods: Comprehensive research of diabetes mellitus and novel methods of treatment. PUBMED search engine was the mainly used database for the search process, articles collected from the year 2000 to 2022 relating to diabetes mellitus treatment. The term used in the search were: Diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes, insulin, beta cells, gene therapy, transdifferentiation, stem cells, iPSC.

Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders that disrupt the homeostasis of insulin and glucose in the blood. It affects up to a tenth of the adult human population and is responsible for millions of death worldwide each year. Broadly, it is classified as type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes, with each one having different etiopathogenesis from the other. Conventional treatments with insulin injections and oral hypoglycemic drugs have been in use for a while, but newer research into genetic engineering, transdifferentiation, and stem cell therapy is offering novel methods of managing this disease.


Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus; Gestational Diabetes; Insulin; Beta Cells; Gene Therapy; Transdifferentiation; Stem Cells; iPSC

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Hashem Mohammed Malki., et al. “Overview of Diabetes Mellitus and New Modalities of Treatment”. EC Microbiology  18.12 (2022): 69-76.