EC Microbiology

Research Article Volume 19 Issue 6 - 2023

Covid-19 Vaccine Uptake among University Students in Ghana: A Case Study of First-year AAMUSTED Students

Ebenezer Assoah1*, Denis Dekugmen Yar2 and Simon Nyarko3

1Department of Biological Science Education, Akenten Appiah-Menka University of Skills Training and Entrepreneurial Development (AAMUSTED), Asante Mampong Campus, Ghana

2Department of Public Health Education, Akenten Appiah-Menka University of Skills Training and Entrepreneurial Development (AAMUSTED), Asante Mampong Campus, Ghana

3Department of Pharmaceutics, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

*Corresponding Author: Ebenezer Assoah, Department of Biological Science Education, Akenten Appiah-Menka University of Skills Training and Entrepreneurial Development (AAMUSTED), Asante Mampong Campus, Ghana.
Received: March 06, 2023; Published: April 29, 2023

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) endorses the COVID-19 vaccination as the most effective method of curbing the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Vaccine hesitancy is ranked among the top ten significant global health threats due to people's perceptions and conspiracies. However, there is a scarcity of data on university students’ vaccination status in Ghana.

Aim: The purpose of the study was to determine the attitudes of Ghanaian university students towards COVID-19 and its vaccination program.

Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was used to assess students' perceptions of the COVID-19 vaccination program using standardized questionnaires. A total of 1000 validated questionnaires were distributed to respondents, and 700 responded, indicating a 70% response rate.

Results: The results revealed that 55.3% of the respondents were vaccinated [X2 (1) = 7.734, p < 0.05] with a few (38.5%) having shown some form of adverse effects. About 38.5% of the participants had no idea about the type of vaccine they took, while most of them (89.4%) desired to recommend the vaccine to those who haven’t yet taken their jab [Χ2 (1) = 223.089, p < 0.05)]. Out of the 381 (53%) that were vaccinated, 219 (59.7%) did so willingly trusting the approval of the vaccines by World Health Organization (WHO) meanwhile a few of the participants [Χ2 (5) = 1419.210, p < 0.05] had misconceptions and doubts about the vaccine. It was also observed that conspiracy theories impede the uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine. From the study, the binary logistic regression analysis of the data discovered that age has a significant impact on the vaccination status of students [AOR = 0.351, CI (0.136, 0.911), P-value = 0.031].

Conclusion: The rate of COVID-19 vaccination coverage among Ghanaian university students is lower than expected. Mistrust, misconceptions, conspiracy theories, and socio-demographic factors are major impediments to vaccine success in Ghana. The study's findings suggest that any interventions aimed at increasing COVID-19 vaccination uptake among university students should focus on mass education in order to build participants' trust in vaccination and decrease misconceptions and conspiracy theories about the vaccination program.

Keywords: Pandemic; Vaccination; Vaccine Hesitancy; Conspiracy Theory; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19

  1. Qiu W., et al. “The pandemic and its impacts”. Health, Culture and Society 9 (2017): 1-11.
  2. Haub C. “How many people have ever lived on earth?” Population Today2 (1995): 4-5.
  3. Dasgupta S and R Crunkhorn. “A History of pandemics over the ages and the human cost”. The Physician2 (2020).
  4. De Araújo Morais AH., et al. “Nutritional status, diet and viral respiratory infections: perspectives for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2”. British Journal of Nutrition8 (2021): 851-862.
  5. Fauci AS., et al. “Covid-19-navigating the uncharted”. Mass Medical Society (2020): 1268-1269.
  6. Velavan T and CG Meyer. “The COVID‐19 epidemic”. Tropical Medicine and International Health3 (2020): 278.
  7. De Roo SS., et al. “Planning for a COVID-19 vaccination program”. The Journal of the American Medical Association 24 (2020): 2458-2459.
  8. Romer D and KH Jamieson. “Conspiracy theories as barriers to controlling the spread of COVID-19 in the US”. Social Science and Medicine 263 (2020): 113356.
  9. Sahoo SS., et al. “The Achilles’ heel in combating the COVID-19 pandemic in an Indian perspective”. Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease2 (2020).
  10. De-Graft Aikins A. “Colonial virus'? Creative arts and public understanding of COVID-19 in Ghana”. Journal of the British Academy 8 (2020): 401-413.
  11. Amissah-Reynolds PK., et al. Prevalence of helminths in dogs and owners’ awareness of zoonotic diseases in Mampong, Ashanti, Ghana (2016).
  12. Gyimah P., et al. “Nexus between the COSO framework and the effectiveness of internal control systems: public universities' perspectives”. Euro Med Journal of Management4 (2022): 315-331.
  13. Fisher BL. “The vaccine information war: Government, big pharma, Gates fund corporate media attack on ‘Vaccine Hesitancy’ as ‘Public Threat” (2019).
  14. Hotez, PJ., et al. “Combating vaccine hesitancy and other 21st century social determinants in the global fight against measles”. Current Opinion in Virology 41 (2020): 1-7.
  15. Sweileh WM. “Bibliometric analysis of global scientific literature on vaccine hesitancy in peer-reviewed journals (1990–2019)”. BMC Public Health1 (2020): 1-15.
  16. Feemster KA. “Building vaccine acceptance through communication and advocacy”. Taylor and Francis (2020): 1004-1006.
  17. Kennedy J. “Vaccine hesitancy: a growing concern”. Pediatric Drugs2 (2020): 105-111.
  18. Alzughaibi S. Disparities in Anti-Vaccine Views: Twitter Contents Analysis During World Immunization Week (2020).
  19. Silva AB., et al. “COVID-19 remote consultation services and population in health inequity-concentrating territories: a scoping review”. Telemedicine and e-Health8 (2021): 881-897.
  20. Brazelton MA. “Mass vaccination: Citizens' bodies and state power in modern China”. 2019: Cornell University Press (2019).
  21. Zar HJ and TW Ferkol. “The global burden of respiratory disease-impact on child health”. Wiley Online Library (2014): 430-434.
  22. Rudan I., et al. “Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia”. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 86 (2008): 408-416B.
  23. Perkins A. “Immunizations: What nurses should know”. Nursing Made Incredibly Easy4 (2018): 30-37.
  24. Oppong AK and M Oti-Boadi. “HIV/AIDS knowledge among undergraduate university students: implications for health education programs in Ghana”. African Health Sciences2 (2013): 270-277.
  25. Tagoe M. “Students’ perceptions on incorporating e-learning into teaching and learning at the University of Ghana”. International Journal of Education and Development Using ICT1 (2012): 91-103.
  26. Kobia-Acquah E., et al. “Career aspirations and factors influencing career choices of optometry students in Ghana”. PloS One 5 (2020): e0233862.
  27. Adjei Gyimah A., et al. “Hepatitis B vaccination status and associated factors among university students in Ghana: A cross-sectional survey”. Cogent Medicine1 (2021): 2005226.
  28. Wells CR and A Galvani. “The global impact of disproportionate vaccination coverage on COVID-19 mortality”. The Lancet Infectious Diseases9 (2022): 1254-1255.
  29. Dhama K., et al. “COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy–reasons and solutions to achieve a successful global vaccination campaign to tackle the ongoing pandemic”. Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics10 (2021): 3495-3499.
  30. Yapi RB., et al. “Knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding the COVID-19 outbreak in Côte d’Ivoire: Understanding the Non-compliance of populations with Non-pharmaceutical interventions”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health9 (2021): 4757.
  31. Scheifele DW., et al. “Evaluation of adverse events after influenza vaccination in hospital personnel”. CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal2 (1990): 127.
  32. Graeber D., et al. “Attitudes on voluntary and mandatory vaccination against COVID-19: Evidence from Germany”. Plos One5 (2021): e0248372.
  33. Lucia VC., et al. “COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among medical students”. Journal of Public Health3 (2021): 445-449.
  34. Foroozanfar N. “Justification of Governments for Mandatory Use of Covid-19 Vaccination Digital Certificates under the European Convention on Human Rights”. Peace Human Rights Governance1 (2022).
  35. Turbat B., et al. “Attitudes towards mandatory occupational vaccination and intention to get COVID-19 vaccine during the first pandemic wave among Mongolian healthcare workers: a cross-sectional survey”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health1 (2021): 329.

Ebenezer Assoah., et al. “Covid-19 Vaccine Uptake among University Students in Ghana: A Case Study of First-year AAMUSTED Students”. EC Microbiology  19.6 (2023): 61-77.