Department of Pharmacy, Mizan-Tepi University, Ethiopia
This Policy Brief examines the emergency of Anopheles stephensi's and challenges facing malaria control in Ethiopia based on a narrative review and synthesis of evidences.
In areas where it was previously under control, malaria appears to be rising right now. The emergence of Anopheles stephensi in Africa and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on preventative and control initiatives are the main causes of this issue. About 10% of all diseases in Africa are caused by malaria. According to the Ethiopian FMoH, the country is heavily infected with malaria, and the current positivity rate is 26%. Because most African Anopheles mosquitoes, including A. gambiae, breed in rural settings, malaria is typically thought of as a disease of the countryside. However, metropolitan areas of Ethiopia (Diredawa, Oromia, Somali and Afar), Djibouti, Sudan, and Somalia have been shown to harbor A. stephensi. As a result, malaria risk in urban Ethiopia will be increased. Due to A. stephensi's intimate relationship with artificial habitats, over 126 million people living in cities around Africa may be at danger of contracting malaria. Attempts to advance global health in Africa including Ethiopia are seriously threatened by the spread of this invasive vector. It effectively spreads Plasmodium falciparum and vivax. A significant threat to malaria prevention and control in Ethiopia is the spread of A. stephensi as a result of zoophilic (desire for animals), exophagic (eating outdoors), and exophilic (resting outdoors) preferences. In Ethiopia, malaria is the main cause of outpatient visits (10 - 40%) and hospital admissions (13 - 26%), placing an immense strain on healthcare resources. Because it decreases the labor force available to grow and harvest food and cash crops, malaria also plays a role in the vicious cycle of poverty in the country. This narrative summary seeks to summarize the issues associated with malaria control in Ethiopia as well as the introduction of A. stephensi, with the goal of making recommendations for upcoming research and decision-makers.
Dejen Nureye. Anopheles stephensi Emergence and Malaria Control Challenges in Ethiopia. EC Pharmacology and Toxicology 11.6 (2023): 29-32.
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