Professor, Department of Oral Medicine and Oral Oncology, Krishna Devaraya College of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
Inflammation is an injury to the tissue by noxious stimuli release various inflammatory mediators by inflammatory cells. Acute inflammation due to injury, microbial agents, chemical agents, and chronic psychological stress induced release of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and proteolytic enzymes from inflammatory cells such as neutrophils, monocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages. Chemokines, which are produced from immune cells helps in recruitment of inflammatory cells to the site of inflammation. IL-2, IL-12, IFN-δ anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory cytokines produced by macrophages, dendritic cells, NK cells. Predominant acute inflammatory cell in acute inflammatory microenvironment is neutrophils release ROS, RNS, TGF-β, IL-1, TNF-α involved in antibacterial activity, cell proliferation, cellular development, cellular maturation, deposition of fibroblasts synthesize collagen helps in cell repair and regeneration by activating NF-KB, a key ubiquitous transcription factor involved in transcription of inflammatory mediators.
In chronic inflammation, if the acute inflammation is aggravated chronically persistent, progressive inflammation can cause various cellular and tissue changes. Chronic inflammation induced release of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, growth factors, and proteolytic enzymes from chronic inflammatory cells such as macrophages, mast cells, T cells and B cells involved in various changes.
Shrihari TG. Acute Inflammation in Tissue Repair and Regeneration and Chronic Inflammation in Cell Injury and Tissue Damage. EC Pharmacology and Toxicology 11.6 (2023): 28.
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