EC Ophthalmology

Research Article Volume 14 Issue 5 - 2023

Window to Corneal Endothelium Health in Diabetics: Analysis with Specular Microscopy

Shreya Thatte1*, Ishita Batra2 and Sakshi Meshram2

1Professor and Head of Department, Department of Ophthalmology, Sri Aurobindo University, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India
2Department of Ophthalmology, Sri Aurobindo University, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India

*Corresponding Author: Shreya Thatte, Professor and Head of Department, Department of Ophthalmology, Sri Aurobindo University, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India.
Received: March 29, 2023; Published: April 27, 2023

Background: Diabetes mellitus has been postulated to alter the morphology of the cornea. The cornea consists of 5 layers. The Endothelium being the most important layer, consists of a monolayer of polygonal cells and that maintains corneal deturgescence throughout life by pumping excess fluid out of the stroma.

Aim of the Study: To compare the morphological characteristics of corneal endothelial cells in type 2 diabetic patients with agematched healthy subjects in terms of the general characteristics, gender, and laboratory data of diabetic patients, including disease duration, HbA1c, type of medication.

Materials and Methods: A case-control study in tertiary health care centre, with a total of 50 diabetic patients and 50 healthy subjects were enrolled. Selected participants who qualified the inclusion criteria and were enrolled for the study after taking a written informed consent underwent complete ophthalmological examination. Corneal endothelial morphology and central corneal thickness were measured using a noncontact specular microscopy and compared 50 diabetic patients with 50 healthy controls. Laboratory data including serum fasting glucose, HbA1c levels were also recorded. Statistical analysis was undertaken with P < 0.05 significance.

Results: In this study, we identified significantly decreased Endothelial Cell Density and percentage of hexagonal cells, elevated average cell size and coefficient of variation in diabetic patients compared with the same parameters in healthy controls (p = 0.000). When correlation analysis was performed between corneal morphological features and laboratory data of diabetic patients, Endothelial Cell Density showed a significant negative correlation with diabetes duration.

Conclusion: As compared with healthy controls, Diabetic patients have definite more endothelial cell loss. Endothelial keratopathy is an important complication of type 2 diabetes. In that respect, we can suggest that endothelial keratopathy and endothelial cells should be evaluated more cautiously in diabetic patients.

Keywords: Specular Microscopy; Corneal Endothelial Cells; Diabetes Mellitus

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Shreya Thatte., et al. Window to Corneal Endothelium Health in Diabetics: Analysis with Specular Microscopy. EC Ophthalmology 14.5 (2023): 27-35.