Doctor Ophthalmologist Children, Ophthalmologic Center, Municipal Institution Rivne Children’s Hospital of the Rivne Regional Council, Ukraine
The main property of the visual system, which determines all aspects of its activity and is the basis of such functions as distinguishing the brightness, color, shape and movement of objects, estimating their size and distance, is the ability to respond to the influence of light .
Visual perception is a multi-level process that consists of three mаin stаges: 1) sequential transformation of light using the optical structures of the eye into an image projected on the retina, formation of a nerve impulse; 2) transmission of a nerve impulse along the conductive pathways of the nervous system to the cortex of the occipital lobe of the brain, associated with visual perception; 3) an analysis of the nerve impulse is carried out by the brain with the formation of a visual sensation, awareness of the presence of a particular visual image in the field of vision [2,3,9,11,12].
Sensory organs are nervous formations that specialize in the perception, conduct and analysis of nervous excitation. One of the components of the sense organs is the receiving (receptor) apparatus. Perception begins with it. Receptors are excited from three sensitive surfaces of the body: 1) from the outer surface of the body (exteroreceptors), receiving irritation from the external environment; 2) from the inner surface of the body (interoreceptors), receiving irritation from chemicals entering the cavities of internal organs; 3) from the thickness of the walls of the body itself (proprioreceptors), in which bones and muscles are embedded. Receptors from the named fields are connected to afferent neurons, which reach the center and there are switched with the help of a conductor system to efferent conductors, the latter, combining with the working organs, cause one or another effect . Thanks to this, our feelings and knowledge of the world are possible.
Legka IM. Peculiarities of Visual Perception in Children. EC Ophthalmology 14.7 (2023):01-10.
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