EC Gynaecology

Research Article Volume 12 Issue 5 - 2023

Prevalence and Perception of Pupils towards Urinary Schistosomiasis in Ikwo Community of Ebonyi

Anorue Chioma Ogochukwu1*, Ugbo Isaiah Ogochukwu1, Nweke Chijioke1, Onyekwere Amos1 and Olabanji Ahmed Surakat2

1Department of Biology, Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu-alike Abakaliki, Nigeria

2Department of Zoology, Faculty of Basic and Applied Sciences, Osun State University Osogbo, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author: Anorue Chioma Ogochukwu, Department of Biology, Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu-alike Abakaliki, Nigeria.
Received: February 28, 2023; Published: April 21, 2023

This study was a cross-sectional based study carried out with a structured questionnaire administered to 270 primary schools pupils from four primary schools in four communities. Urine microscopy was carried out using sedimentation method. Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis was determined by considering number of positive urine samples collected and intensity were calculated using geometric mean intensity (GMI) and observing the egg count/10 ml of urine. The findings revealed that out of the 270 pupils examined, 153 (56.7%) were males and 117 (43.3%) were females. An overall prevalence rate of 23 (8.5%) was obtained. Severe infection of S. haematobium ova was higher for the male pupils (60 ova/10 ml) compared to female (40 ova/10 ml). Data was analyzed using (SPSS version 20) Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis infection was higher for male pupils 14 (9.2%) compared to their counterpart female pupils 9 (7.7%) (χ2 = 0.181, p-value = 0.671.). There was no significant difference in the infection, p < 0.05 Pupils of age group 9-12 were found to have high prevalence of 13 (11.93%) compared to other pupils in other age groups, χ2 = 3.248, p-value = 0.197. Prevalence and intensity of the infection was relatively higher in Community Primary School Enyibichiri (17.8%) χ2 = 0.181, p-value = 0.671. The level of awareness and knowledge of infection amongst school pupils was average. Some practices like drinking of infested freshwater, defecating, urinating, swimming, washing and bathing in canals are still being practiced. There is need for stringent laws to curtail these practices.

Keywords: Knowledge; Attitude; Schistosomiasis; Schistosoma haematobium; Cercariae

  1. Boko PM., et al. “Schistosomiasis and soil transmitted Helminths distribution in Benin: a baseline prevalence survey in 30 districts”. PLoS One 11 (2016): e0162798.
  2. Drudge-Coates L and Turner B. “Schistosomiasis-an endemic parasitic waterborne disease”. British Journal Nurses 22 (2013): S10.
  3. Kulinkina AV. “Community based methods for schistosomiasis prediction and sustainable control in Ghana”. PhD dissertation. Tufts University (2014): 14-56.
  4. King CH. “Parasites and poverty: the case of schistosomiasis”. Acta Tropical2 (2010): 95-104.
  5. Houweling TA., et al. “Socioeconomic inequalities in neglected tropical diseases: a systematic review”. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 10 (2016): e0004546.
  6. Colley DG., et al. “Human schistosomiasis”. Lancet 383 (2014): 2253-2264.
  7. Navas ALA., et al. “Mapping soil transmitted Helminths and Schistosomiasis under uncertainty: a systematic review and critical appraisal of evidence”. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 10 (2016): e0005208.
  8. Gray DJ., et al. “Schistosomiasis elimination: lessons from the past guide the future”. Lancet Infect Disease 10 (2010): 733-736.
  9. Redekop WK., et al. “The socioeconomic benefit to individuals of achieving the 2020 targets for five preventive chemotherapy neglected tropical diseases”. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 11 (2017): e0005289.
  10. Mduluza T and Mutapi F. “Putting the treatment of paediatric schistosomiasis into context”. Infectious Disease Poverty 6 (2017): 85.
  11. Macharia JW., et al. “Factors influencing community participation in control and related operational research for urogenital schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths in rural villages of Kwale County, coastal Kenya”. Pan African Medical Journal 24 (2016): 36.
  12. Inobaya MT., et al. “Prevention and control of schistosomiasis: a current perspective”. Research Report Tropical Medicine (2014): 65.
  13. World Health Organization. A guide to developing knowledge, attitude, and practice surveys (2008).
  14. Good B. Medicine, rationality, and experience: an anthropological perspective, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1994).
  15. Ribeaux P and Poppleton SE. “Psychology and Work: an introduction”. Macmillan, London (1978).
  16. World Health Organization. Schistosomiasis Progress Report (2001-2011) and Strategic Plan (2012-2020). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization Press (2013).
  17. Jacobstein R., et al. “Meeting the need for modern contraception: effective solutions to a pressing global challenge”. International Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics 121 (2013): S9-15.
  18. Amjad UQ., et al. “Rethinking sustainability, scaling up, and enabling environment: a framework for their implementation in drinking water supply”. Water4 (2015): 1497-1514.
  19. Anosike JC., et al. “Endemicity of vesical schistosomiasis in the Ebonyi Benue river valley, south eastern Nigeria”. International of Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health3 (2003): 205-210.
  20. Uneke CJ., et al. “Urinary Schistosomiasis among School Age Children in Ebonyi State, Nigeria”. The Internet Journal of Laboratory Medicine2 (2007): 23-29.
  21. Uwaezuoke JC., et al. “Epidemiological and Bacteriological studies on Vesical Schistosomiasis in Ikwo L.G.A. of Ebonyi state”. Nigeria Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management2 (2008): 75-80.
  22. Amadi ANC., et al. “Epidemiology of Dracunculiasis in Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria”. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management2 (2005): 67-73.
  23. Munisi DZ., et al. “Intestinal Schistosomiasis among Primary Schoolchildren in Two On-Shore Communities in Rorya District, Northwestern Tanzania: Prevalence, Intensity of Infection and Associated Risk Factors”. Journal of Parasitology Research (2016): 1859737.
  24. David ZM., et al. “Knowledge, attitude, and practices on intestinal schistosomiasis among primary schoolchildren in the Lake Victoria basin, Rorya District, north-western Tanzania”. Journal of Bio Med Central 17 (2017): 731.
  25. Aron WN. “Parasitological Survey of Schistosoma Haematobium Infection among School Children in Mkuranga District, Tanzania”. A Dissertation Submitted to Public Health and Food Safety of Sokotine University of Agriculture. Morogoro, Tanzania (2015): 11-16.
  26. Sady H., et al. Knowledge, attitude, and practices towards schistosomiasis among rural population in Yemen Parasites and Vectors 8 (2015): 436.
  27. Anosike JC., et al. “Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis amongst the Ohaukwu people of Ebonyi State, Nigeria”. African Journal of Applied zoology and Environmental Biology Volume 6 (2004): 123-127.
  28. Maseko TS., et al. “Schistosomiasis knowledge, attitudes, practices, and associated factors among primary school children in the Siphofaneni area in the Lowveld of Swaziland”. Journal of Microbiology Immunology Infectious1 (2018): 103-109.
  29. Sama MT., et al. “High risk behaviours and schistosomiasis infection in Kumba, South-West Province, Cameroon”. International Journal of Environmental Resources and Public Health2 (2007): 101-105.
  30. Noman UH., et al. “A cross sectional assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice towards Hepatitis B among healthy population of Quetta”. Pakistan BMC Public Health 12 (2012): 692.
  31. Adoka SO., et al. “Community perceptions of schistosomiasis transmission, prevalence and control in relation to aquatic habitats in the Lake Victoria basin of Kenya”. East Africa Medical Journal7 (2014): 232-244.

Anorue Chioma Ogochukwu., et al. Prevalence and Perception of Pupils towards Urinary Schistosomiasis in Ikwo Community of Ebonyi. EC Gynaecology 12.5 (2023): 25-36.