EC Cardiology

Review Article Volume 10 Issue 5 - 2023

Investigation and Review of the Development and Application of Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-Cell Therapy for Cardiovascular and Other Conditions

Kevin D Pruitt1,2†, Nicholas A Kerna3,4*†, ND Victor Carsrud5, Hilary M Holets6, Sudeep Chawla7, Dabeluchi C Ngwu8,9, John V Flores6, Chizoba M Ani10, Ayodeji A Ayeni11, Cornelius I Azi12and Joseph Anderson II13

1Kemet Medical Consultants, USA

2PBJ Medical Associates, LLC, USA

3Independent Global Medical Researchers Consortium

4First InterHealth Group, Thailand

5Lakeline Wellness Center, USA

6Orange Partners Surgicenter, USA

7Chawla Health & Research, USA

8Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, Federal Medical Center, Umuahia, Nigeria

9Earthwide Surgical Missions, Nigeria

10James Lind Institute, Switzerland

11Babcock University Teaching Hospital, Ogun, Nigeria

12Northern Care Alliance NHS Foundation Trust, UK

13International Institute of Original Medicine, USA

*Corresponding Author: Nicholas A Kerna, (mailing address) POB47 Phatphong, Suriwongse Road, Bangkok, Thailand 10500. Contact: † indicates co-first author
Received: June 13, 2023; Published: July 22, 2023

Treatment of cancer, especially liquid tumors, is remarkably effective when T cells carrying chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are used. The ability to develop CARs for specific oncological applications has made them a compelling alternative to established cancer therapies such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy. CAR T cells are engineered from T cells isolated from the patient’s or donor’s blood. The patient then receives a second infusion of the genetically altered, enlarged T cells. CARs comprise a transmembrane domain called the spacer domain, a single chain variable fragment (scFv), one or more cytoplasmic domains, and an extracellular ligand-binding domain, usually also an scFv. These CAR T cells are then tested against cancer. Based on their pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics, they can be classified as first, second, third, or fourth-generation CAR T cells. Each generation showed different efficacy and safety, showing that the primary step in ACT is carefully selecting target antigens. Six CAR-T cell therapies have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) so far for patients with aggressive hematologic malignancies, including non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), two cases of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), and one case of multiple myeloma (MM). Many more CAR-T cell therapies are currently in the clinical development pipeline for these and other malignancies.

Keywords: Antigen Receptors; Chemotherapy; Genetic Alterations; Hematologic Malignancies; Oncological Applications; Radiation Therapy

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Pruitt KD, Kerna NA, Carsrud NDV, Holets HM, Chawla S, Ngwu DC, Flores JV, Ani CM, Ayeni AA, Azi CI, Anderson II J. "Investigation and Review of the Development and Application of Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-Cell Therapy for Cardiovascular and Other Conditions". EC Cardiology  10.5 (2023): 01-15.