EC Cardiology

Review Article Volume 10 Issue 5 - 2023

Bionics and the Total Artificial Heart and Other Organs and Structures

John V Flores1†, Nicholas A Kerna2,3*†, Dabeluchi C Ngwu4,5, Kevin D Pruitt 6,7, ND Victor Carsrud8, Hilary M Holets1, Sudeep Chawla9 and Dorathy Nwachukwu10

1Orange Partners Surgicenter, USA

2Independent Global Medical Research Consortium

3First InterHealth Group, Thailand

44 Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, Federal Medical Center, Umuahia, Nigeria

5Earthwide Surgical Missions, Nigeria

6Kemet Medical Consultants, USA

7PBJ Medical Associates, LLC, USA

8Lakeline Wellness Center, USA

9Chawla Health and Research, USA

10Georgetown American University, Guayana

*Corresponding Author: Nicholas A Kerna, (mailing address) POB47 Phatphong, Suriwongse Road, Bangkok, Thailand 10500. Contact: † indicates co-first author
Received: March 15, 2023; Published: March 31, 2023

From prehistoric people's subconscious bionic actions to significant bionic designs in modern engineering, bionic consciousness, ideas, and practice have paved the way for the advancement of humanity, the growth of society, and the invention of science and technology. The term "bionics" describes the fusion of technological innovations created by humans with natural structures and functioning systems. Following the trauma or disease, bionics devices stimulate the nerves or muscles to give therapeutic intervention, sensory feedback, or motor function; they may also record the electrical activity from the nerves or muscles to identify disease states; they can enable the voluntary control of devices like prosthetic limbs; or they can provide closed-loop feedback to modify neural prostheses. The kind of prosthetic limb a person can use depends on various factors, including the person, the reason for the amputation or loss of the limb, and the location of the missing limb. Novel bio-inspired therapies have emerged recently that work by rearranging the bodily parts already present in a person to improve physiology. Instead of substituting biological tissue in this case, engineering concepts are used to reorganize and manipulate the natural tissue and organs to replace or enhance physiological activities (auto-bionics). This research aims to investigate the history, summarize, and simplify the understanding of the application of bionics in medical treatment.

Keywords: Auto-Bionics; Bionic Consciousness; Closed-Loop Feedback; Prosthetic Limbs; Sensory Feedback; Targeted Muscle Reinnervation

  1. Ashrafian H., et al. “Autobionics: a new paradigm in regenerative medicine and surgery”. Regenerative Medicine2 (2010): 279-288.
  2. Roth RR. “The foundation of bionics”. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine2 (1983): 229-242.
  3. Bionic limbs. Curious (2023).
  4. Wahl DC. “Bionics vs. biomimicry: from the control of nature to sustainable participation in nature. In: Design and Nature III: Comparing Design in Nature with Science and Engineering”. WIT Press (2006).
  5. Erdmann WS. “Biomechanics and Bionics in Sport”. Applied Bionics and Biomechanics – MOJABB3 (2018): 62-65.
  6. Chakrabarti A. “Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies] Research into Design for a Connected World. In: || Biomimicry: Exploring Research, Challenges, Gaps, and Tools”. Chapter 134 (2019): 87-97.
  7. Donaldson N and Brindley GS. “The historical foundations of bionics”. In: Neurobionics: The Biomedical Engineering of Neural Prostheses. John Wiley and Sons, Inc (2016): 1-37.
  8. The History of Bionics. Healthguideinfo (2023).
  9. Stronks HC and Dagnelie G. “The functional performance of the Argus II retinal prosthesis”. Expert Review of Medical Devices1 (2014): 23-30.
  10. Deutsche Welle. “The Weird Metamorphosis of Kevin Warwick, World’s First Cyborg”. Deutsche Welle (2023).
  11. Walsh F. “Bionic eye implant world first”. BBC (2023).
  12. Johnson J., et al. “Military veteran first person to get 3D-printed “hero arm” on NHS”. The Daily Telegraph (2023).
  13. Historical highlights in bionics and related medicine”. Science5557 (2002): 995.
  14. Craelius W. “The bionic man: restoring mobility”. Science5557 (2002): 1018-1021.
  15. Amin KR. “Bionic limb replacement: an evolving concept in lower extremity reconstruction”. Plastic and Aesthetic Research3 (2022): 24.
  16. Bocchi EA. “Cardiomyoplasty for treatment of heart failure”. European Journal of Heart Failure4 (2001): 403-406.
  17. Chedrawy EG and Chiu RCJ. “Cellular cardiomyoplasty: cell therapy for myocardial regeneration”. Artificial Cells Blood Substitutes and Immobilization Bi5-6 (2002): 517-532.
  18. Ashrafian H and Le Roux CW. “Metabolic surgery and gut hormones - a review of bariatric entero-humoral modulation”. Physiology and Behavior5 (2009): 620-631.
  19. Buchwald H., et al. “Weight and type 2 diabetes after bariatric surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis”. The American Journal of Medicine3 (2009): 248-256.
  20. Rongen CGMI Baeten MJ. "Dynamic Graciloplasty." (2023).
  21. Baeten CG., et al. “Dynamic Graciloplasty”. In Fecal Incontinence. Springer (2007).
  22. Hikosaka M., et al. “Anatomic basis of anorectal reconstruction by dynamic graciloplasty with pudendal nerve anastomosis”. Diseases of the Colon and Rectum1 (2015): 104-108.
  23. Brown KN and Kanmanthareddy A. “Aortic Valve Ross Operation”. Stat Pearls Publishing (2022).
  24. Ramnarine IR., et al. “Counterpulsation from the skeletal muscle ventricle and the intraaortic balloon pump in the normal and failing circulations”. Circulation1 (2006): I10-15.
  25. Frossard L., et al. “Editorial: Bionics limb prostheses: Advances in clinical and prosthetic care”. Frontiers in Rehabilitation Sciences 3 (2022): 950481.
  26. Aszmann OC., et al. “Bionic reconstruction to restore hand function after brachial plexus injury: a case series of three patients”. Lancet9983 (2015): 2183-2189.
  27. Tan DW., et al. “A neural interface provides long-term stable natural touch perception”. Science Translational Medicine257 (2014): 257ra138-257ra138.
  28. Kuiken TA., et al. “Targeted reinnervation for enhanced prosthetic arm function in a woman with a proximal amputation: a case study”. Lancet9559 (2007): 371-380.
  29. Pasquina PF., et al. “First-in-man demonstration of a fully implanted myoelectric sensors system to control an advanced electromechanical prosthetic hand”. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 244 (2015): 85-93.
  30. Dhillon GS., et al. “Effects of short-term training on sensory and motor function in severed nerves of long-term human amputees”. Journal of Neurophysiology5 (2005): 2625-2633.
  31. Marasco PD., et al. “Sensory capacity of reinnervated skin after redirection of amputated upper limb nerves to the chest”. Brain6 (2009): 1441-1448.
  32. Bumbaširević M., et al. “The current state of bionic limbs from the surgeon’s viewpoint”. EFORT Open Reviews2 (2020): 65-72.
  33. Kuiken TA., et al. “Targeted muscle reinnervation for the upper and lower extremity”. Techniques in Orthopaedics2 (2017): 109-116.
  34. Cheesborough JE., et al. “Targeted muscle reinnervation and advanced prosthetic arms”. Seminars in Plastic Surgery1 (2015): 62-72.
  35. Petrini FM., et al. “Six-month assessment of a hand prosthesis with intraneural tactile feedback: Hand prosthesis”. Annals of Neurology1 (2019): 137-154.
  36. Raspopovic S., et al. “Restoring natural sensory feedback in real-time bidirectional hand prostheses”. Science Translational Medicine222 (2014): 222ra19.
  37. Valle G., et al. “Comparison of linear frequency and amplitude modulation for intraneural sensory feedback in bidirectional hand prostheses”. Scientific Reports1 (2018): 16666.
  38. Granata G., et al. “ID 287 – Sensory feedback generated by intraneural electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves drives cortical reorganization and relieves phantom limb pain: A case study”. Clinical Neurophysiology3 (2016): e63.
  39. Weymann A., et al. “Artificial muscles and soft robotic devices for treatment of end-stage heart failure”. Advanced Materials (2022): e2207390.
  40. Booth JW., et al. “An addressable pneumatic regulator for distributed control of soft robots. In: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Soft Robotics (Robo Soft). IEEE (2018).
  41. Han B., et al. “Plasmonic-assisted graphene oxide artificial muscles”. Advanced Materials5 (2019): e1806386.
  42. Oveissi F., et al. “Tough hydrogels for soft artificial muscles”. Materials and Design109609 (2021): 109609.
  43. Craddock M., et al. “Biorobotics: An overview of recent innovations in artificial muscles”. Actuators6 (2022): 168.
  44. Dhar P. “Bionic Muscles That Are Stronger, Faster, and More Efficient”. IEEE Spectrum (2023).
  45. Kolff J., et al. “The artificial heart in human subjects”. The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery6 (1984): 825-831.
  46. Vis A., et al. “The ongoing quest for the first total artificial heart as destination therapy”. Nature Reviews Cardiology12 (2022): 813-828.
  47. Chuang AT., et al. “2 Retinal implants: A systematic review”. British Journal of Ophthalmology7 (2014): 852-856.
  48. Lewis PM., et al. “Advances in implantable bionic devices for blindness: a review: Advances in bionic devices for blindness”. ANZ Journal of Surgery9 (2016): 654-659.
  49. Bionity (2023).
  50. Cochlear Implants. NIDCD fact sheet | hearing and balance (2023).
  51. Wilson BS and Dorman MF. “Cochlear implants: current designs and future possibilities”. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development5 (2008): 695-730.
  52. Soboyejo W and Daniel L. “Bioinspired Structures and Design || Bionic Organs (2020): 167-192.
  53. Cochlear Implant Surgery: Background, History of the Procedure, Problem. Medscape (2023).
  54. Indications and Contraindications Indications. Advancedbionics (2023).
  55. The future of bionic limbs. Research Features (2023).
  56. Yoosuf S and Ahmed H. “Bionic Hand”. Ijert (2023).
  57. Anis Atikah N., et al. “Control of non-linear actuator of artificial muscles for the use in low-cost robotics prosthetics limbs”. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 257 (2017): 012073.
  58. Orthotist or Prosthetist (2023).,21.htm
  59. The Orthotic, Prosthetic, and Pedorthic Profession. The National Commission on Orthotic and Prosthetic Education (2023).
  60. Orthotics and Prosthetics. Purdue (2023).
  61. Abouna GM. “Organ shortage crisis: problems and possible solutions”. Transplantation Proceedings1 (2008): 34-38.
  62. Aylor Do E and Aurora P. “Registry of the international society for heart and lung transplantation: Twenty-fifth official adult heart transplant report--2008”. The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation9 (2008): 943-956.
  63. Asia Pacific Artificial Organs and Bionics Markets, Competition, Forecast and Opportunities, 2028 - Businesswire (2023).
  64. Artificial Vital Organs and Medical Bionics Market. Grandviewresearch (2022).
  65. Rapp SH., et al. “Current trends and challenges in prosthetic product development: Literature review”. International Journal of Scientific Research6 (2019): 1554-1563.
  66. The Pros and Cons of Bionics - 1510 Words (2023).
  67. Berning J. 26-year-old builds $8,000 mind-controlled bionic arms (2023).
  68. Bionic leg Memphis. Human Technology Prosthetics and Orthotics (2023).
  69. Cochlear Implant Cost. Babyhearing (2023).
  70. Wakefield J. “Bionic eyes: Obsolete tech leaves patients in the dark”. BBC (2023).
  71. Lubeck DP. “The artificial heart. Costs, risks, and benefits--an update”. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care3 (1986): 369-386.
  72. Bionics potential largely untapped in India. Biospectrumindia (2023).
  73. Kiaee K., et al. “Bionic Organs”. In: Bioinspired Structures and Design”. Cambridge University Press (2020): 167-192.
  74. Fernández E., et al. “Acute human brain responses to intracortical microelectrode arrays: challenges and future prospects”. Frontiers in Neuroengineering 7 (2014): 24.
  75. Green R and Abidian MR. “Conducting polymers for neural prosthetic and neural interface applications”. Advanced Materials46 (2015): 7620-7637.
  76. Vidal GWV., et al. “Review of brain-machine interfaces used in neural prosthetics with new perspective on somatosensory feedback through method of signal breakdown”. Scientific (2016): 8956432.
  77. Barrese JC., et al. “Failure mode analysis of silicon-based intracortical microelectrode arrays in non-human primates”. Journal of Neural Engineering6 (2013): 066014.
  78. Bionics: A step into the future. The Alliance of Advanced Bio Medical Engineering (2023).

Flores JV, Kerna NA, Ngwu DC, Pruitt KD, Carsrud NDV, Holets HM, Chawla S, Nwachukwu D. "Bionics and the Total Artificial Heart and Other Organs and Structures". EC Cardiology  10.5 (2023): 16-32.